November 2011


William P. Hall (PhD)


PO Box 94, Riddells Creek, Vic 3431
Phones: +61 3 5428 6246


Documentation & KM Systems Analyst, TOGAF9 Certified Enterprise Architect

Security Clearances

Secret (Australian, lapsed), US AEC Q (1964-1965)




August 16, 1939; Los Angeles, Calif.


Married, no children


Documentation and Knowledge Management Roles

Academic Employment and Roles

Other Professional Experience

Miscellaneous Background (computer science)




1967-73 PhD, Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1973. Thesis title: Chromosome Evolution and Speciation in the Iguanid Lizard Genus Sceloporus.
1966-67 Washington University, St Louis, Mo. (genetics courses)
1965-67 Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, Ill.
1961-65 BS, Zoology, San Diego State College, San Diego, Calif., 1964
1959-61 University of California, Los Angeles
1957-59 Occidental College, Los Angeles
Subjects in addition to Zoology and Biology included:
  • Genetics and cytogenetics: 4 yrs (organismic, cellular and molecular)
  • Physics: 2½ yrs (through analytical mechanics and electrical measurements & theory
  • Maths: 2½ yrs (through differential equations)
  • Systematics: 2 yrs
  • Chemistry: 2 yrs (through organic chemistry)
  • History of Civilisation: 2 yrs
  • Technical Publishing and Illustrating: 1 term.


Graduated Pt Loma High School, San Diego. Practical courses included maths & sciences, Army Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC - 3 yrs), typing, printshop and drafting.

Academic Awards and Grants

  • Society of the Sigma Xi: Summer 1966 - partial support of a survey of chromosomal variation in the undulatus group of Sceloporus lizards. Summer 1968 - partial support of a survey of chromosomal variability of Mexican Sceloporus.
  • Harvard University Richmond Fund Scholarship: Academic year 1970-1971.
  • National Geographic Society Committee on Research and Exploration: June 1970-May 1972 - partial support for field studies of chromosomal variation in Mexican iguanid lizards.
  • NIH Division of Research Resources: Grant RR-8102 (Dr George Hillyer, Project Director): Award to W.P. Hall and J.M. Garcia-Castro, co-investigators for "Training Program in Clinical and Comparative Cytogenetics", June 1975 to May 1978. (My participation ended in June 1976).
  • University of Melbourne Research Fellowship (Department of Genetics): Sept. 1977 - Aug. 1979 - support for independent studies in the comparative population cytogenetics of vertebrates and the epistemology of knowledge in evolutionary biology.
  • Monash University Honorary Research Fellowship (School of Information Management & Systems). March 2002 - June 2005 studies in organizational knowledge management.
  • University of Technology Sydney Visiting Faculty Associate (Faculty of Information Technology) November 2005 -
  • University of Melbourne, Australian Centre for Science, Innovation and Society National Fellow (Faculty of Arts/Faculty of Engineering) December 2005 - 






Kororoit Institute Proponents and Supporters Association, Inc.- President (honorary): KIPSA was incorporated in April 2011 to establish an independent research, outreach and postgraduate training organization to study complex organized systems. It is named after one of the central drainages crossing the western suburbs of Melbourne, Australia, that this is the most rapidly growing suburban area in Australia. The name also reflects the organization's interests in landcare and community organization (amongst other interests) and the fact that several of its founding members reside in the western suburbs.

EA Principals, Inc. - Principal: (6268 Lincolnia Rd, Alexandria, VA 22312) As a TOGAF 9 Certified Enterprise Architect, I am participating in the develpment of course ware for this company that provides training for enterprise architects around the world.

Freelance.   Due to the restructuring of Tenix Defence in 2007, I was offered redundancy effective 12/7/2007. I am now guest lecturing and tutoring in the The University of Melbourne's Masters in Engineering Management curriculum, and have more time for my academic pursuits (see Publications and Presentations). I am available for interesting short term or part time consultancy roles relating to orgnisational content and knowledge management systems (people, processes and infrastructure).


Tenix Defence Pty Ltd.   (Formerly AMECON, Transfield Defence Systems, Tenix Defence Systems Pty Ltd. Tenix Defence Pty Ltd was acquired and merged into BAE Systems in January 2008). Until October 2001, essentially all of my work for this employer was associated with documentation production and management requirements associated with Tenix's ~$7 BN contract to design, produce and deliver 10 ANZAC Class frigates to the Australian and New Zealand Navies. In October 2001 I moved to the Tenix Defence's corporate level Strategy and Development Group to help apply lessons learned across the multi-divisional corporate structure. In 2003, with a reorganization of Tenix Defence and the disbandment of Strategy and Development I was moved into the Engineering Head Office organization where I filled content and knowledge management roles. In January 2007 with restructuring of Tenix Defence, I was moved into Tenix Group Head Office.



Documentation and Knowledge Management Systems Analyst
  • Continued support of  OpenText's LiveLink as a corporate knowledge management portal.
  • Continued evaluation and promotion of the S1000D common-source database and documentation standard for defence electronic technical manuals.
  • Continued development and prototyping of mind-map based methodology for mapping personal knowledge
  • Continued work to facilitate cross-divisional communities of practice for ILS disciplines with three successful cross-divisional meetings.
  • Research the formation of industry clusters (Porter) and active promotion of the formation of a Melbourne cluster around systems for engineering and project knowledge management to explore implementations of integrations around the S1000D standard
  • Facilitated ICT industry cluster workshop meeting involving Victorian and NSW companies, some cluster applications due to be tested in Tenix applications
  • Facilitated joint ACSIS-Tenix workshop to explore integration of SAIC's TeraText and Tenix's Crossbow 
  • Facilitated formation of Support Engineering Community of Practice



Tenix Defence Engineering Head Office - Documentation and Knowledge Management Systems Analyst
  • Continued support of  OpenText's LiveLink as a corporate knowledge management portal.
  • Sponsorship and guidance of two KM interns
  • Evaluation and promotion of the AECMA S1000D common-source database and documentation standard for Defence interactive electronic technical manuals.
  • Continued development and prototyping of mind-map based methodology for mapping personal knowledge
  • Continued work to facilitate cross-divisional communities of practice for ILS disciplines.
  • Followup activities for Tenix's "Shipbuilder" bid to build 3 AEGIS type destroyers in the $4.5-7 BN Air Warfare Destroyer Project for the Royal Australian Navy.



Tenix Defence Engineering Head Office - Documentation and Knowledge Management Systems Analyst
  • Continued support of  OpenText's LiveLink as a corporate knowledge management portal.
  • Development and prototyping of classification schemes for LiveLink.
  • Drafting of corporate policies on information and knowledge management.
  • Development and prototyping of a mind-map based methodology for mapping personal knowledge.
  • Evaluation and promotion of the AECMA S1000D common-source database and documentation standard for Defence interactive electronic technical manuals.
  • Conference presentations in Australia and Singapore.
  • Establishment and facilitation of a cross-divisional community of practice for ILS disciplines.
  • Development of a business case for a Take-To-Market investment in a software house (actions still pending).
  • Documentation development for Tenix's "Shipbuilder" bid to build 3 AEGIS type destroyers in the $4.5-7 BN Air Warfare Destroyer Project for the Royal Australian Navy.


Tenix Defence Engineering Head Office - Documentation Systems Analyst
  • Heavy involvement in implementing OpenText's LiveLink as a corporate knowledge management portal.
  • Peripheral involvement in implementation and integration of TeraText and eMatrix in Land Division's M113 upgrade project.
  • Development of a collaborative research project with Monash University's School of Information Management and Systems to study the management of project related knowledge.
  • Development and participation in collaborative research to assess collaborative engineering project management applications with CSIRO's division of Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology (ex Manufacturing Sciences and Technology)
  • Preparation and delivery of conference papers (see List of Publicatoins)


Strategy and Development Group - Documentation Systems Analyst
  • Project manager of the Tenix Groups global LKI (knowledge management) project to audit corporate knowledge management capabilities and to provide initial recommendations for improvements
  • Co leader of Tenix Defence's audit of engineering/logistics tools and requirements; implementor of SpeedLegal's SmartPrecedent (XML-based authoring system for contractual documents)
  • Continued leading role in the RACE Online consortium to develop XML standards for contracts and tender documents.
  • Continued (but peripheral) involvement in the design and development of SIM extensions within the Tenix corporate environment.
  • Preparation and delivery of conference papers (see List of Publications)


Integrated Logistic Support (ILS) Documentation Systems Specialist
  • Continued support for the SIM system
  • Involvement in bidding activities for the implementation of content management systems for ASLAV and M113 Upgrade Projects.
  • Conference presentations


Integrated Logistic Support (ILS) Documentation Systems Specialist
  • involved in extending RMIT's Structured Information Manager (SIM) solution for ANZAC Ship maintenance procedures to include Client in review and signoff loop and additional document types (e.g., Def Aust 5629A generic technical manual standard)
  • involved in drafting Technical Overview and Capabilities Statement for ASLAV LOGMIS Project Bid; supporting In Service Support group marketing of SIM extensions to ANZAC Ship Sustainment Management Organisation; study of marketing of Tenix fleet management capabilities to Ansett Airlines
  • working with the international LegalXML Consortium and Requirements and Contracts Engineering (RACE) Online to develop XML standards for contract and tender documents; RACE Online Consortium includes CSIRO Manufacturing Sciences and Technology Manufacturing Systems and Automation Group, RMIT University Multimedia Database Systems Group, SpeedLegal Pty Ltd, and Australian Industry Defence Network (AIDN)
  • Preparation and delivery of conference papers (see List of Publications)


Integrated Logistic Support (ILS) Documentation Systems Specialist

  • coordinated Tenix's internal decision and sign-off activities through mobilisation of the project to implement SIM; and
  • developed and drafted a long-term business development plan for jointly marketing SIM together with Tenix's value added logistic engineering and documentation development services.
  • Short courses and conferences attended during the period 1997-1999 included Developing Applications in Microsoft Access 2.0 (I & II - IMG University Education Series by Chris Bell), GUI Goodies for Visual Basic (Monash Univ.), FrameMaker+SGML (InFrame Solutions), and SGML/XML Asia Pacific Conferences in 1998 and 1999.


Manager, SGML R&D Project, plus previously existing ILS roles as Documentation Systems Specialist

  • completed requirements analysis and project definition study for SGML object management system for ANZAC Ship planned maintenance documentation (PMD) (this involved developing SGML data models for the PMD data and drafting a detailed project plan for the work)
  • prepared RFQ specifications documentation assisted by a process review conducted by CSIRO's Division of Mathematical and Information Sciences, and drafted the implementation contract in conjunction with contract engineers; and
  • assessed supplier quotations to implement the specified solution and a range of alternatives for the ANZAC PMD data.


Documentation Systems Specialist within ILS; designated Subject Matter Expert in the Shipbuilding Systems Project (SSP) for ILS and Configuration Management units; plus all of my previously existing ILS roles. SSP roles involved:

  • serving on a working party to review and assess a range of product data management / integrated product development environments to recommend a selection;
  • studying the BaaN manufacturing resource planning system; and
  • mapping Tenix business processes (workflows) across a number of cross-functional areas to the BaaN environment. Substantial training in business process mapping and BaaN systems was provided.


 My major task was to design, develop and code a hierarchical relational database system in MS Access for authoring and managing planned maintenance data for the Landing Platform Amphibious project. Working for the Follow On Support cell of ILS I also developed several small tracking systems in MS Access (viewer for scanned correspondence, ILS warranty item tracking, general trial card overview/tracking, tracking of components cannibalised from shipsets).


Working within ILS as documentation system developer, data administrator for planned maintenance data, and schedule administrator, my various functions involved:

  • analysing the ANZAC Ship Prime Contract and drafting contract amendments to define paper and electronic deliverables;
  • developing an authoring and data management environment to meet these requirements
  • working with a government contractor to develop the SGML DTD for Technical Repair Specification (TRS) documents within the DEF AUST 5629A standards;
  • selecting applications and setting to work the SGML authoring environment for TRS data
  • analysing the Test Evaluation and Validation (TE&V) requirements under the Contract
  • designing the Operational Availability Recording and Reporting System (OARRS) to meet the TE&V requirements and drafting the prime contract amendment to specify the solution; and
  • developing applications for and carrying out ILS's internal project scheduling functions in MS Excel and MS Project.

Conference attendance in this period included the 1993 and 1994 Australasian CALS conferences. Allette System's introductory and advanced SGML courses were also taken.


word processing systems expert variously shared between the Configuration Management, Training and Corporate Services Groups with the following main functions:

  • continued supporting the documentation management applications developed within WordPerfect;
  • procured and set-to-work the ISYS document information retrieval system, developed a training module for it, and conducted initial training sessions;
    designed several job task-oriented training modules for word processing and management-level computer literacy; and
  • as a quality improvement exercise, in Corporate Services, I completed a company-wide review of word processing data management problems and requirements, and suggested a number of improvements and corrective actions (which were not acted on).


Commercial Documentation Controller for the ANZAC Ship subcontracts and purchase orders:

  • implemented the WordPerfect word processing system when we moved to a networked environment in mid 1990;
  • to provide some degree of management control over electronic files in the WordPerfect environment, I designed the directory structures used for the subcontract drafting process; and
  • developed and maintained a wide variety of menu-driven correspondence and file management processes within the WordPerfect merge/macro environment. These management tools continued in general use with little further maintenance until the IS department replaced WordPerfect with MS Word.


Bank of Melbourne. (formerly RESI-Statewide Building Soc.)
Corporate Services, 541 St Kilda Rd, Melbourne, Vic 3004

Documentation Manager, responsible for IS (excluding source) and end user documentation and banking forms. Documentation was all authored in WordPerfect on a Novell network. Forms were designed and maintained in a Macintosh environment. Non-administrative tasks included:

  • analysis and documentation of procedures;
  • conversion, editing and layout of documents and end-user manuals written by other areas;
  • establishment of document file naming and management standards on the network;
  • participation (as co-project manager) in developing and documenting the bank's IS problem and change management systems; and
  • setting to work the computerised library cataloguing and circulation system (procured from Ferntree) for the IS technical library.

Various skills were also gained with TSO/ISPF/SCRIPT in the 3090 MVS/XA environment, DMR's development methodology. Training included an in-house management course, and BIS Systems's course in Business Analysis.

Technical Writer (initially on contract, then permanent):
  • IS staff induction primer on the 3090 MVS/XA system, covering development environments, tools, dataset naming, etc.
  • executive overview of the bank's entire Hogan-based EDP system (as carried over from Statewide).


Computerease Software Pty Ltd (and predecessor companies)
278 Coventry Street, South Melbourne, Vic 3205
(In 1988 company assets were taken over by Information Unlimited (Aust) P/L, 2 Prospect Hill Road, Camberwell.) The maximum number of staff was about 10.
Company products were all developed for a microcomputer (Vector Graphics) Concurrent CP/M environment, which would run up to three applications simultaneously on the one 386 K Z80 machine and/or support multiple users on dumb terminals. Products included a range of modules for small to medium import/export distributors (all financials, plus inventory control and import costing), clinical practices (medical, vet, dental & chiropractic), insurance brokers, capital asset managers, and a yacht club. The company developed brilliantly modular software on an excellent platform that could not be sold to an unsophisticated market that wanted IBM PC's.
My Computerease employment began with casual word processing assignments to my WP bureau and I resigned from the company as Documentation/Marketing Support Manager and shareholder. All documentation was developed in a stand-alone WordStar environment. Responsibilities included:
  • planning, writing and layout of complete user documentation packages. By the time my employment with the company ended I had completely documented all of the products.
  • analysing and implementing the clinical practice management system's user interface (which was designed to facilitate customisation for the kind of practice).
  • editing and drafting of marketing support documentation, and editing of much of the sales, marketing and joint venture correspondence.


Computer Literacy Trust (and predecessor organisations)
c/o Pannell Kerr Forster, 255 William Street, Melbourne, Vic. 3000
The Trust assembled and published four editions (2 for schools and 2 for businesses) of a computer literacy journal in an attempt to establish a self-supporting enterprise.
Working variously as Consulting Editor / Chairman, Editorial Board on a part time basis I was involved in editorial and article writing; soliciting, selecting and editing copy; help in preparing promotional materials; and long-range planning.


W&R Hall Word Processing Services
66 Atkinson Street, Templestowe, Vic. 3106
Home-based word processing, consulting and documentation services in conjunction with my wife. The major source of work was difficult academic theses and books (physics, mathematics and chemistry) with the occasional consultancy to set up word processing systems for small businesses. In 1980 we used an IBM selectric typewriter. Most work was done in a WordStar in a Z80 CP/M microcomputer environment, with a few jobs being completed in WordPerfect and MS Word (on Macintosh). Working freelance, I also contributed a number of evaluations of word processing systems to Australian computer magazines (see Publications and Abstracts items 26-30).



Dec 2005 -

National Fellow, Australian Centre for Science, Innovation and Society, University of Melbourne
  • Work towards the formation of a virtual enterprise network in the area of project lifecycle knowledge management. See studies of industry clusters (Porter) under Tenix Defence
  • Convener of interfaculty workshop on teaching and research in organizational knowledge management
  • Guest lecturing for Faculty of Engineering Master in Engineering Management on knowledge management in technological enterprises
Participation in Postgraduate Education

I have served as a PhD thesis advisor in the area of knowledge management and organization theory.

  • Two I have formally advised have completed their degrees: Peter Dalmaris (Faculty of Information Technology, University of Technology, Sydney) graduated March 2006. Susu Nousala (School of Aerospace, Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT) completed her degree in June 2006.
  • As an informal advisor, Steve Else, completed his degree in 2004 at The Faculty of the Graduate School of International Studies, University of Denver; and another two are currently working on their degrees at RMIT School of Aerospace, Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering and The University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy.

March 2002 -
June 2005

School of Information Management & Systems, Monash University
Honorary Research Fellow

To facilitate work on my book project, Application Holy Wars (see below), I sought and was granted academic privileges as an Honorary Research Fellow in the School of Information Management and Systems (SIMS). During in 2003, Tenix Defence funded one day per week release time to build on this opportunity. I used this position in an attempt to develop collaborative research opportunities between SIMS and Tenix Defence, and became Associate Advisor to three mature age PhD students, all with extensive management experience.


Queens College, University of Melbourne
E.H. Sugden Research Fellow

The intent of my tenure of the Fellowship was to continue my research into the insights Thomas Kuhn's work, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, and Sir Karl Popper's writings offered on the history and philosophical foundations of evolutionary biology. To support my writing I purchased a locally developed microcomputer prototype to use as a word processor. However, a long delay in delivery of my research library and papers from the USA and my inability to generate any genuine interest amongst University students or faculty in my intended research project, made it easy for me to be drawn into the ferment surrounding the revolutionary development of personal computing. In conjunction with a group of people associated with the developers of my microcomputer, I attempted to establish a computer club at Queen's College. This, in conjunction with what was intended to be a chain of commercial 'Hands-On' computer clubs, was intended to help students and the general public prepare for the revolutionary changes that would be brought about by the new personal computing technology. The activities of this group, which also led to the establishment of the Computer Literacy Trust, never became sufficiently self-supporting to be commercial.


University of Maryland, College Park
Department of Zoology
As Visiting Lecturer (fixed term), at the undergraduate level I taught 2/3 of the Evolution subject, Vertebrate Zoology and the cytogenetics part of the Experimental Genetics subject. I also gave a postgraduate subject in Evolution and Systematics.


University of Melbourne, Parkville
Department of Genetics
As University of Melbourne Research Fellow, I participated in the Genetics Department's honours program as a student advisor and twice gave 25% of the genetical Evolution of Plants and Animals subject. I also participated in symposia and gave seminars at universities in Sydney, Canberra and Adelaide. My major research project during this period was a study of the epistemology of the comparative approach in evolutionary biology , as well as continuing work to publish aspects of my PhD thesis.


University of Colorado, Boulder
Department of Evolutionary, Population and Organismic Biology
As Visiting Assistant Professor (fixed term), my primary responsibility was the supervision, coordination and evaluation of a complete reorganisation of EPO Biology's first year general biology course program for approximately 1000 students. I also conducted the 2nd year Genetics subject for two summers and a postgraduate lecture subject on genetic systems, evolution and speciation. As Coordinator of the general Biology program, I supervised an average of 7 lecturers, 15 graduate demonstrators and 25 undergraduate assistant demonstrators per term. To aid me, I had a full time secretary-admin. assistant and a lab preparator-supervisor, plus miscellaneous work-study students. All first term labs were planned from scratch, and I was heavily involved in designing new lab facilities for the course. No time or facilities were available for research.


University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico
Department of Biology
(The University of Puerto Rico is a US Federal 'land grant' institution, equivalent to other State Universities in the continental US)
As Assistant Professor I was fully responsible for the following subjects: Biogeography (3 terms), Cytogenetics (2 terms), genetics, invertebrate biology, marine invertebrates, comparative vertebrate anatomy, vertebrate ecology, and postgraduate seminars in cytogenetics and systematics. I supervised graduate work in mouse and plant cytogenetics, lizard cytosystematics and ecology, and primate behaviour. Academic committee assignments included Post Graduate Admissions (2½ years as co-chair), Core Curriculum Planning (2 yrs), Library (1 yr). Limited time and facilities were available for personal research. Such research as was attempted was severely disrupted by university strikes and lockouts.


Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
Department of Biology
As Teaching Fellow in Biology and General Studies, I demonstrated for two terms in the general education biology course given by the Nobel laureate George Wald, two terms in the Anthropology Department's general education course in primate genetics, behaviour and evolution, two terms in vertebrate biology, and taught evening extension courses in vertebrate and invertebrate biology (one term each).


Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville
Division of Life Sciences
As "Assistant Instructor", I was fully responsible for general education biology lecture sections and labs (2+ terms) and invertebrate biology lectures and lab (1 term). I demonstrated in comparative vertebrate anatomy and vertebrate biology courses.



US National Science Foundation
Policy Research and Analysis
Washington, DC
Short term subcontract to assist in a statistical study of the effects of changing levels of funding (measured by research grants made) on the production of basic research in genetics in the US (measured by numbers of papers published by US Authors). The study involved extensive work with computerised databases from granting agencies and indexes to the literature such as Science Citation Index.
Volunteers in Technical Assistance
3706 Rhode Island Ave., Mt. Ranier, MD 20822
Short term as Admin Assistant (librarian) in the Documentation Center Library. Tasks involved purchasing, accessioning, cataloguing and indexing of documents and publications on simple and energy conserving technologies appropriate for poor and developing countries.


UCLA Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology
Nevada Test Site (US nuclear proving ground)
Mercury, Nevada
As a Research Technician in ecology (full time), I worked on Atomic Energy Commission sponsored studies of the effects of chronic low-level gamma radiation on desert ecosystems. While working on this project, I held AEC 'Q' (Top Secret) security clearance, and began my first successful studies of chromosome variation in the sceloporine lizards of North America.


San Diego State University
Department of Psychology

Assistant (part time) to D.M. Rumbaugh on comparative studies of learning set performance of monkeys.


San Diego Society of Natural History Museum and San Diego State Univ.
Department of Herpetology

As a curatorial assistant in herpetology (part time) I was involved in all aspects of collecting, accessioning and maintaining museum collections of reptiles and amphibians for both institutions.


Children's Hospital, Los Angeles
Sensory and Developmental Physiology Research Lab

Working variously as a part or full-time research technician, and as a National Institutes of Health Predoctoral Trainee I was involved in a number of research projects in the following areas:
  • studies of drug and radiation effects on O2 availability in foetal and adult tissues;
  • stimulus-response mapping of full brain and nerve (microelectrode) responses using an on-line signal averaging computer ('portable' - based on a 64 K ferrite core memory);
  • drug effects on signal transmission via isolated nerves; and
  • basic neurophysiology of hearing and vocalisation in gekkonid lizards.


I grew up in Southern California sea ports, in a shipbuiling, engineering and military environment. My father variously built and operated fishing boats and was an industrial engineer in the aeronautical industry (both in manufacturing and for North Island Naval Air Station). My family were also 'yachties', and we lived aboard from the time I was 5 years old. Most of the marinas where we lived were adjacent to shipyards or yacht builders, and we were always surrounded by Navy activities.

I selected high school courses intending to become an aeronautical/astronautical engineer, so I took all the university preparatory courses along with mechanical (=engineering) drafting and typing. Other high school practical courses included a year of print shop due to a family connection - a grandfather founded one of Los Angeles' major specialty printing firms. I took Army Reserve Officers Training Corps as an alternative to physical education. I entered Occidental College's joint engineering program with Caltech (a 5 year arts/engineering degree), although I soon changed to the more theoretical major of physics. During my two years at Occidental College, Air Force ROTC was compulsory for all first and second year male students.

Although the technology for producing documents has undergone revolutionary changes since these early courses, the high school and ROTC activities gave me a solid foundation for engineering and military documentation standards and typography, page design and layout.

My first contact with computers was in 1958-59 through an extracurricular project at Occidental College using an already obsolete computer at Caltech to analyse, design and code a machine language program to differentiate algebraic expressions. Analytical and flowcharting concepts were developed in this project.

From 1960 to 1963, I worked part time and summers for the Sensory and Developmental Physiology Research Lab, where I was involved with real-time processing of neural responses using a signal averaging 'microcomputer' and a variety of other (then) state of the art electrophysiological apparatus.

As a postgraduate student and academic I made frequent and sophisticated use of computerised library facilities to retrieve information from the world biological literature (e.g., even in the late 1970's Biological Abstracts was searchable for more than 5,000,000 publications, and was abstracting and indexing more than 250,000 new items each year - and this was only one of several on-line databases of comparable size I used.) I also gained substantial expertise in writing, illustrating and publishing through my own authoring activities and assisting students in the preparation of their work.

As a research fellow at Queen's College (University of Melbourne) in 1981 I purchased an early microcomputer to word process my scientific papers, and became more fascinated by the rapidly evolving computer and its social implications than what I was writing. To pay for the computer, I started a home-based word processing service specialised in typing technical theses, and quickly became skilled with word processing and the CP/M operating system.

During the period 1981-1983 I helped found the Australian Foundation for Computer Literacy (not-for-profit), and Public Access Computing Pty Ltd ('Hands-on Computer Clubs'), both intended to offer the general public training and hands-on access to the new personal computing technology. Although neither venture succeeded financially, I did gain some experience with the Apple II, Lisa and Macintosh environments, plus Cromemco's UNIX. Beginning in late 1983, I also became involved (as a contributing editor) with the attempt to start up a series of computer literacy journals. Four pilots were published, but the venture failed to gain backing for a sustained marketing effort.

Some income was derived from offering word processing training and consultancy services. In the commercial computer press, I also published several reviews of word processing systems for both CP/M and early MS DOS environments.

All of this led into my professional employment with Computerease Software as a technical documentation manager, where I became responsible for all of the company's user documentation and word processing activities.

Through 1987 most of my writing and documentation work was done with WordStar in one of the Digital Research environments (CP/M, MP/M, Concurrent CP/M, Concurrent DOS). From 1987 to ~1995+ most work has been with WordPerfect MS DOS/Windows environment using the associated script processing tools. From 1993 I have become skilled with the MS Office range and their associated script processing tools and Visual Basic languages.

I should also note that my research in evolutionary biology involved the analysis of fuzzy systems to understand how they work. The mental processes used to understand how a group of species evolves and changes in response to external circumstances are essentially identical to those used to understand how a business system works and can be changed to improve an organisation's bottom line.